Egla, 66

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Chapter 66

Egil slays Ljot the Pale[1]

Thorstein and Egil made ready for their journey so soon as they had ended their errand. They then went their way back, and when they came south over the Dovre-fell, then said Egil that he would go down to Raumsdale, and after that south by way of the sounds. 'I will,' said he, 'finish my business in Sogn and Hordaland, for I would fain in the summer take my ship out to Iceland.' Thorstein bade him settle his journey as he would. So Thorstein and Egil separated.

Thorstein went south by the dales all the way till he came to his estates. There he produced the tokens of the king and his message before the stewards, that they should give up all that property which they had taken and Thorstein claimed. No one spoke against it, and he then took all his property.

Egil went his way, they being twelve in all. They came on to Raumsdale, there got them conveyance, and then went south to Mæri. Nothing is told[2] of their journey before they came to the island called Hod, and went to pass the night at a farm named Bindheim. This was a well-to-do homestead,[3] in which dwelt a baron named Fridgeir. He was young in years, and had but lately inherited his father's property. His mother was named Gyda; she was a sister of lord Arinbjorn, a woman of a noble presence and wealthy. She managed the house for her son Fridgeir: they lived in grand style. There Egil and his company found good welcome. In the evening Egil sat next to Fridgeir, and his comrades outside him. There was much drink and sumptuous viands. Gyda, the house-mistress, in the evening had some talk with Egil. She inquired about Arinbjorn, her brother, and other of her kinsmen and friends who had gone to England with Arinbjorn. Egil answered her inquiries. She asked what tidings had befallen in Egil's journey. He told her plainly. Then he sang:

'Gloomy on me glowered
In gruesome wrath a king:
But cuckoo faints and fails not
For vulture flapping near.
Aid good from Arinbjorn,
As oft, and peace I gat.
He falls not whom true friends
Help forward on his way.'

Egil was very cheerful that evening, but Fridgeir and his household were rather silent. Egil saw there a maiden fair and well dressed; he was told that she was Fridgeir's sister. The maiden was sad and wept constantly that evening, which they thought strange. They were there for the night, but in the morning the wind was blowing hard, and there was no putting to sea. They need a boat to take them from the island. Then went Fridgeir and with him Gyda to Egil, and offered that he and his comrades should stay there till it was good travelling weather, and should have thence such help for the journey as they needed. This Egil accepted. They stayed there weather-bound for three nights, most hospitably entertained. After that the weather became calm.

Then Egil and his men rose up early in the morning and made ready; then went to meat, and ale was given them to drink, and they sat awhile. Then they took their clothes. Egil stood up and thanked the master and mistress of the house for their entertainment; then they went out. The master and his mother went out into the path with them. Gyda then went to speak with her son Fridgeir, and talked low with him, Egil standing the while and waiting for them.

Egil said to the maiden: 'Why weep you, maiden? I never see you cheerful.'

She could not answer, but wept the more. Fridgeir now said to his mother aloud: 'I will not now ask this. They are even now ready for their journey.'

Then Gyda went to Egil and said: 'I will tell you, Egil, how things stand here with us. There is a man named Ljot the Pale. He is a Berserk and a duellist; he is hated. He came here and asked my daughter to wife; but we answered at once, refusing the match. Whereupon he challenged my son Fridgeir to wager of battle; and he has to go to-morrow to this combat on the island called Vors. Now I wished, Egil, that you should go to the combat with Fridgeir. It would soon be shown if Arinbjorn were here in the land, that we should not endure the overbearing of such a fellow as is Ljot.'

Egil said: Tis but my bounden duty, lady, for the sake of Arinbjorn thy kinsman that I go, if Fridgeir thinks this any help to him.'

'Herein you do well,' said Gyda. 'So we will go back into the hall, and be all together for the whole day.'

Then Egil and the rest went into the hall and drank. They sate there for the day. But in the evening came those friends of Fridgeir who had appointed to go with him, and there was a numerous company for the night, and a great banquet. On the morrow Fridgeir made ready to go, and many with him, Egil being one of the party. It was now good travelling weather.

They now start, and soon come to the island. There was a fair plain near the sea, which was to be the place of combat. The ground was marked out by stones lying round in a ring. Soon came thither Ljot and his party. Then he made him ready for the combat. He had shield and sword. Ljot was a man of vast size and strong. And as he came forward on the field to the ground of combat, a fit of Berserk fury seized him; he began to bellow hideously, and bit his shield. Fridgeir was not a tall man; he was slenderly built, comely in face, not strong. He had not been used to combats. But when Egil saw Ljot, then he sang a stave: [4]

'It fits not young Fridgeir
To fight with this warrior,
Grim gnawer of shield-rim,
By his gods who doth curse.
I better may meet him,
May rescue the maiden;
Full fearsome he stareth,
Yet "fey" are his eyes.'

Ljot saw where Egil stood, and heard his words. He said: 'Come thou hither, big man, to the holm, and fight with me, if thou hast a wish that way. That is a far more even match than that I should fight with Fridgeir, for I shall deem me no whit the greater man though I lay him low on earth.'

Then sang Egil:

'Ljot asketh but little,
Loth were I to baulk him.
Pale wight, my hand pliant
Shall play on his mail.
Come, busk we for combat;
Nor quarter expect thou:
Strife-stirrer, in Mæri
Stern shield-cutting ours.'

After this Egil made him ready for combat with Ljot. [5] Egil had the shield that he was wont to have, was girded with the sword which he called Adder, but in his hand he had Dragvandill. He went in over the boundary that marked the battle-ground, but Ljot was then not ready. Egil shook his sword and sang:

'Hew we with hilt-wands flashing,
Hack we shield with falchion,
Test we moony targets,
Tinge red sword in blood.
Ljot from life be sundered,[6]
Low stern play shall lay him,
Quelled the quarrel-seeker:
Come, eagles, to your prey.'

Then Ljot came forward on the field and declared the law of combat, that he should ever after bear the name of dastard who should draw back outside the boundary stones that were set up in a ring round the field of combat. This done, they closed, and Egil dealt a blow at Ljot, which Ljot parried with his shield, but Egil then dealt blow upon blow so fast that Ljot got no chance for a blow in return. He drew back to get room for a stroke, but Egil pressed as quickly after him, dealing blows with all his vigour. Ljot went out beyond the boundary stones far into the field. So ended the first bout. Then Ljot begged for a rest. Egil let it be so. They stopped therefore and rested. And Egil sang:

'Free-handed gold-giver,
Back goeth yon champion,
In craven fear crouches
This wealth-craving wight.
Not strongly fights spearmen
His strokes who delayeth.
Lo beat by a bald-head
This bragging pest flies.'

These were the laws of wager of battle in those times, that when one man challenged another on any claim, and the challenger gained the victory, then he should have as prize of victory that which he had claimed in his challenge. But if he were vanquished, then should he ransom himself for such price as should be fixed. But if he were slain on the field, then had he forfeited all his possessions, and he who slew him in the combat should take his inheritance. This was also law, that if a foreigner died who had no heir in the land, then that inheritance fell to the king's treasury.

And now Egil bade Ljot be ready.

'I will,' he said, 'that we now try to the uttermost this combat.'

Ljot sprang swiftly to his feet. Egil bounded at him and dealt at once a blow at him. He pressed him so close, that he was driven back, and the shield shifted from before him. Then smote Egil at Ljot, and the blow came on him above the knee, taking off his leg. Ljot then fell and soon expired. Then Egil went to where Fridgeir and his party stood. He was heartily thanked for this work. Then sang Egil:[7]

'Fall'n lies the wolf-feeder,
Foul worker of mischief:
Ljot's leg by skald sever'd
Leaves Fridgeir in peace.
From the free gold-giver
Guerdon none I seek me,[8]
Sport I deem the spear-din,[9]
Sport with such pale foe.'

Ljot's death was little mourned, for he had been a turbulent bully. He was a Swede by birth, and had no kin there in the land. He had come thither and amassed him wealth by duels.[10] He had slain many worthy landowners, whom he had first challenged to wager of battle for their lands and heritages; he had now become very wealthy both in lands and chattels.

Egil went home with Fridgeir from the field of combat. He stayed there but a short time before going south to Mæri. Egil and Fridgeir parted with much affection. Egil charged Fridgeir with the securing of those lands that had belonged to Ljot. Egil went on his way and came to the Firths, whence he went into Sogn to seek Thord in Aurland. Thord received him well; he declared his errand and the message of king Hacon. These words of Egil were taken well by Thord, who promised him his help in this matter. Egil remained there with Thord far into the spring.

References

  1. Egil slays Ljot the Pale: "This, then, is clearly another instance of an attempt to take a woman by force, … What is more, it occurs in ch. 64, i.e., like the other two cases (Hildrið and Þóra related property claims, ch. 23 and 57), in the first pentad of the part in which it is recounted, and is thus parallel to those, not only in content, but also in its position in the structure of the saga. By killing Ljótr, Egill not only defends his friend Arinbjörn's kinsmen, he also prevents a recurrence of the disrupted property claims which might well have resulted from it." Fichtner, Edward G.. The Narrative Structure of Egils saga (p. 364).
  2. Nothing is told: „Stories happen in their realistic time and also when there is nothing "worthy of mention" is happening, when human activity remains stagnant. In some of the chapter endings there are such closing sentences, breaks. The author does not intend to propagate the word by introducing these parts, but rather he is emphasizing the reality of inactive but significant periods of wintertime and lengthy travels between places, while putting together pieces of the story with simple declarations and rhythm.“ (Hungarian text: „...formalításnak tetszik a sagaíró időkezelési módja. A történetek lefolynak a maguk reális idejében [...] mi van akkor, amikor nem történik „semmi említésre méltó“, (amikor) megcsappant az emberi aktivítás. ..egy-egy fejezet végén megjelennek ilyen zárómondatok, szünetjelek [...] a szerző nem akarta szaporítani a szót, inkább az idő ürességétől való iszonyában egyszerű kijelentő mondatokkal ölti össze a történet darabjait)". Bernáth, István. Nem mondhatjuk, hogy semmi újság (p. 604).
  3. well-to-do homestead: " I seg selv er det ikke noe unaturlig i å benytte adjektivet om en gård; men uttrykket er meget sterkt i den forbindelse hvor det står i Egils saga og virker som sagt overraskende. Det dreier seg sant nok om en lendmanns gård; men en ville heller ha ventet det om en jarls eller en konges gård " Bjarni Einarsson. Göfugr bær (p. 82).
  4. then he sang a stave: "In Hinsicht auf die unter Egils Namen überlieferten Strophen müssen wir also große Vorsicht üben. Die Strophen der Ljótr-Episode scheiden ganz aus; auch die, welche zu dem Besuche bei Ármóðr [...] gehören, werden ziemlich allgemein als unecht betrachtet. Dasselbe gilt übrigens von fast allen Stegreifstrophen im späteren Teil der Saga." Vries, Jan de. Altnordische Literaturgeschichte (p. 138).
  5. After this Egil made him ready for combat with Ljot: “Men om denne Egils holmgang med berserken Ljot har fått denne eventyrlege utstasinga, er det ingen grunn til å gjera berserken Ljot til ein rein eventyrskapnad. […] Det er såleis etter mitt skjøn grunn til å rekne med at Egil verkeleg har hatt holmgnag med ein berserk, som han felte og dermed skulle arve.” Hovstad, Johan. Tradisjon og diktning i Egils saga (p. 92).
  6. Ljot from life be sundered: "The psychosis of the berserkr is present in Egil [...] along with the ability of composing poetry. Like the berserkr, the poet goes out of himself, and he is so fully immersed in the composition of his verses that he allows to believe he is ill, while humbling himself in silence and concentration [cf. Odin’s furor]". Meli, Marcello. Preface to La saga di Egill (p. xv).
  7. Then sang Egil: "In Hinsicht auf die unter Egils Namen überlieferten Strophen müssen wir also große Vorsicht üben. Die Strophen der Ljótr-Episode scheiden ganz aus; auch die, welche zu dem Besuche bei Ármóðr [...] gehören, werden ziemlich allgemein als unecht betrachtet. Dasselbe gilt übrigens von fast allen Stegreifstrophen im späteren Teil der Saga." Vries, Jan de. Altnordische Literaturgeschichte (p. 138).
  8. none I seek me: "Þegar Egill segir, eftir víg Ljóts, í vísunni til Friðgeirs, að hann ætlist ekki til launa fyrir verkið ... þá er hann bersýnilega að þagga niður græðgina í eignir Ljóts, og telur sig trú um, að hann hafi barizt við hann af óeigingjörnum hvötum." Guðmundur Finnbogason. Hvers vegna orti Egill Höfuðlausn? (p. 195).
  9. Sport I deem the spear-din: "If Egill was from the first the subject of the poem, the noble rejection of any reward ('séka lóns til launa / logbrjótanda í móti') might well have struck the audience as ironically discordant with his normal disposition in the saga, where he is portrayed as among the most grasping and property-conscious of men" Poole, Russell. Egill’s Duel with Ljótr (p. 181).
  10. amassed him wealth by duels: "The sagas suggest, since they deal predominantly with the lives of prominent families, that it was mainly the aristocracy which engaged in the practice of the duel, just as law in general benefited and upheld the mighty. Nevertheless, the common man, a poor but free man, had apparently right to fight a duel … Egils saga Skallagrimssonar (ch. 65, p. 208) states epressly "at hverjum manni var rétt, at skora á annan til holmgöngu" ' that everyone had the right to challenge another to a duel.' References from Iceland and in particular Norway … show that the intrepid considered the duel an instrument to better their way of life." Ciklamini, Marlene. The Old Icelandic Duel (p. 176).

Kafli 66

Egill drap Ljót hinn bleika[1]

Þorsteinn og Egill bjuggu ferð sína þegar þeir höfðu lokið erindum sínum. Fara þeir þá aftur á leið. Og er þeir koma suður um Dofrafjall þá segir Egill að hann vill fara ofan til Raumsdals og síðan suður sundaleið. „Vil eg,“ segir hann, „lúka erindum mínum í Sogni og á Hörðalandi því að eg vil búa skip mitt í sumar til Íslands út.“

Þorsteinn bað hann ráða ferð sinni. Skiljast þeir Þorsteinn og Egill. Fór Þorsteinn suður um Dali og alla leið til þess er hann kom til búa sinna. Bar hann þá fram jartegnir konungs og orðsending fyrir ármennina að þeir skyldu láta fé það allt er þeir hafa upp tekið og Þorsteinn kallaði til.

Egill fór leiðar sinnar og þeir tólf saman. Komu þeir fram í Raumsdal, fengu sér þá flutningar, fóru síðan suður á Mæri. Er ekki sagt frá[2] ferð þeirra fyrr en þeir komu í ey þá er Höð heitir og fóru til gistingar á bæ þann er heitir á Blindheimi. Það var göfugur bær.[3] Þar bjó lendur maður er Friðgeir hét. Hann var ungur að aldri, hafði nýtekið við föðurarfi sínum. Móðir hans hét Gyða. Hún var systir Arinbjarnar hersis, skörungur mikill og göfug kona. Hún var að ráðum með syni sínum Friðgeiri. Höfðu þau þar rausnarbú mikið. Þar fengu þeir allgóðar viðtökur. Sat Egill um kveldið hið næsta Friðgeiri og förunautar hans þar utar frá. Var þar drykkja mikil og dýrleg veisla.

Gyða húsfreyja gekk um kveldið til tals við Egil. Hún spurði að Arinbirni bróður sínum og enn að fleirum frændum sínum og vinum þeim er til Englands höfðu farið með Arinbirni. Egill sagði henni það sem hún spurði. Hún spurði hvað til tíðinda hefði gerst í ferðum Egils. Hann segir henni af hið ljósasta. Þá kvað hann:

Urðumst leið hin ljóta
landbeiðaðar reiði.
Sígrat gaukr ef glamma
gamm veit um sig þramma.
Þar naut eg sem oftar
arnstalls sjötulbjarnar.
Hnígrat halr sá er holla
hjálpendr of för gjálpar.

Egill var allkátur um kveldið en Friðgeir og heimamenn voru heldur hljóðir. Egill sá þar mey fagra og vel búna. Honum var sagt að hún var systir Friðgeirs. Mærin var ókát og grét einart um kveldið. Það þótti þeim undarlegt.

Þar voru þeir um kveldið. En um morguninn var veður hvasst og eigi sæfært. Þar þurftu þeir far úr eyjunni. Þá gekk Friðgeir og bæði þau Gyða til fundar við Egil. Buðu þau honum þar að sitja með förunauta sína til þess er gott væri færiveður og hafa þaðan farabeina þann sem þeir þyrftu. Egill þekktist það. Sátu þeir þar veðurfastir þrjár nætur og var þar hinn mesti mannfagnaður. Eftir það gerði veður lygnt. Stóðu þeir Egill þá upp snemma um morguninn og bjuggust, gengu þá til matar og var þeim gefið öl að drekka og sátu þeir um hríð. Síðan tóku þeir klæði sín. Egill stóð upp og þakkaði bónda og húsfreyju beina sinn og gengu síðan út. Bóndi og móðir hans gengu á götu með þeim. Þá gekk Gyða til máls við Friðgeir son sinn og talaði við hann lágt. Egill stóð meðan og beið þeirra.

Egill mælti við meyna: „Hvað grætur þú mær? Eg sé þig aldrei káta.“

Hún mátti engu svara og grét að meir. Friðgeir svarar móður sinni hátt: „Ekki vil eg nú biðja þess. Þeir eru nú búnir ferðar sinnar.“

Þá gekk Gyða að Agli og mælti: „Eg mun segja þér Egill tíðindi þau sem hér eru með oss. Maður heitir Ljótur hinn bleiki. Hann er berserkur og hólmgöngumaður. Hann er óþokkasæll. Hann kom hér og bað dóttur minnar en vér svöruðum skjótt og synjuðum honum ráðsins. Síðan skoraði hann til hólmgöngu á Friðgeir son minn og skal á morgun koma til hólmsins í ey þá er Vörl heitir. Nú vildi eg Egill að þú færir til hólmsins með Friðgeiri. Mundi það sannast ef Arinbjörn væri hér í landi að vér mundum eigi þola ofríki slíkum manni sem Ljótur er.“

„Skylt er það húsfreyja fyrir sakir Arinbjarnar frænda þíns að eg fari með ef honum þykir sér það nokkuð fullting.“

„Þá gerir þú vel,“ segir Gyða, „skulum vér þá ganga inn í stofu og vera öll saman daglangt.“

Ganga þeir Egill þá inn í stofu og drukku. Sátu þeir þar um daginn en um kveldið komu vinir Friðgeirs, þeir er til ferðar voru ráðnir með honum, og var þar fjölmennt um nóttina. Var þar þá veisla mikil.

En eftir um daginn bjóst Friðgeir til ferðar og margt manna með honum. Var þar Egill í för. Þá var gott færiveður. Fara þeir síðan og koma í eyna Vörl. Þar var fagur völlur skammt frá sjónum er hólmstefnan skyldi vera. Var þar markaður hólmstaður, lagðir steinar í hring utan um.

Nú kom þar Ljótur með lið sitt. Bjóst hann þá til hólmgöngu. Hann hafði skjöld og sverð. Ljótur var allmikill maður og sterklegur. Og er hann gekk fram á völlinn að hólmstaðnum þá kom á hann berserksgangur. Tók hann þá að grenja illilega og beit í skjöld sinn. Friðgeir var maður ekki mikill, grannlegur og fríður sjónum og ekki sterkur. Hafði hann og ekki staðið í bardögum. Og er Egill sá það þá kvað hann vísu:[4]

Era Friðgeiri færi,
förum hólms á vit, sörvar,
skulum banna mjög manni
mey, örlygi að heyja
við þann er bítr og blótar
bönd élhvötuð Göndlar,
alfeigum skýtr ægir
augum, skjöld á baugi.

Ljótur sá hvar Egill stóð og heyrði orð hans og mælti: „Gakk þú hingað hinn mikli maður á hólminn og berst við mig ef þú ert allfús til og reynum með okkur. Er það miklu jafnlegra en eg berjist við Friðgeir því að eg þykist eigi að meiri maður þó að eg leggi hann að jörðu.“

Þá kvað Egill:

Erat lítillar Ljóti,
leik eg við hal bleikan,
við bifteini, bænar,
brynju, rétt að synja.
Búumst til vígs en vægðar
von lætka eg honum.
Skapa verðum við skildi
skæru, drengr, á Mæri.

Síðan bjóst Egill til hólmgöngu við Ljót. [5] Egill hafði skjöld þann sem hann var vanur að hafa en hann var gyrður sverði því er hann kallaði Naður en hann hafði Dragvandil í hendi. Hann gekk inn yfir mark það er hólmstefnan skyldi vera en Ljótur var þá eigi búinn. Egill skók sverðið og kvað vísu:

Höggvum hjaltvönd, skyggðum,
hæfum rönd með brandi.
Reynum randar mána,
rjóðum sverð í blóði.
Stýfum Ljót af lífi,[6]
leikum sárt við bleikan.
Kyrrum kappa errinn,
komi örn á hræ, járnum.

Þá kom Ljótur fram á vígvöllinn og síðan rennast þeir að og höggur Egill til Ljóts en Ljótur brá við skildinum en Egill hjó hvert högg að öðru svo að Ljótur fékk ekki hoggið í móti. Hann hopaði undan til höggrúmsins en Egill fór jafnskjótt eftir og hjó sem ákafast. Ljótur fór út um marksteinana og víða um völlinn. Gekk svo hin fyrsta hríð. Þá beiddist Ljótur hvíldar. Egill lét það og vera. Nema þeir þá stað og hvíla sig. Þá kvað Egill:

Fyrir þykir mér fúra
fleins stökkvandi nokkuð,
hræðist hodda beiðir
happlaus, fara kappi.
Vegrat fast, sá er frestar,
fleindöggvar stafr, höggum.
Vábeiðan fer víðan
völl fyr rotnum skalla.

Það voru hólmgöngulög í þann tíma að sá er skorar á mann annan til eins hvers hlutar og fengi sá sigur er á skoraði þá skyldi sá hafa sigurmál það er hann hafði til skorað, en ef hann fengi ósigur þá skyldi hann leysa sig þvílíku fé sem ákveðið væri. En ef hann félli á hólminum þá hafði hann fyrir vegið allri sinni eigu og skyldi sá taka arf hans er hann felldi á hólmi. Það voru og lög ef útlendur maður andaðist sá er þar í landi átti engan erfingja þá gekk sá arfur í konungsgarð.

Egill bað að Ljótur skyldi búinn verða „vil eg að vér reynum nú hólmgöngu þessa.“

Síðan hljóp Egill að honum og hjó til hans. Gekk hann þá svo nær honum að hann hrökk fyrir og bar þá skjöldinn af honum. Þá hjó Egill til Ljóts og kom á fyrir ofan kné og tók af fótinn. Féll Ljótur þá og var þegar örendur.

Þá gekk Egill þar til er þeir Friðgeir voru. Var þetta verk honum allvel þakkað. Þá kvað Egill:

Féll sá er flest hið illa,
fót hjó skáld of Ljóti,
úlfgrennir hefir unnið,
eir veitti eg Friðgeiri.
Séka eg lóns til launa[7]
lögbrjótanda í móti.[8]
Jafnt var mér í gný geira
gaman leikr við hal bleikan.

Ljótur var lítt harmaður af flestum mönnum því að hann hafði verið hinn mesti óeirumaður. Hann var sænskur að ætt og átti engva frændur þar í landi. Hann hafði komið þangað og aflað sér fjár á hólmgöngum.[9] Hann hafði fellt marga góða bændur og skorað áður á þá til hólmgöngu og til jarða þeirra og óðala, var þá orðinn stórauðigur bæði að löndum og lausaaurum.

Egill fór heim með Friðgeiri af hólmstefnunni. Dvaldist hann þar þá litla hríð áður hann fór suður á Mæri. Skildust þeir Egill og Friðgeir með miklum kærleik. Bauð Egill Friðgeiri um að heimta jarðir þær er Ljótur hafði átt. Fór Egill sína leið, kom fram í Fjörðum. Þaðan fór hann inn í Sogn á fund Þórðar á Aurlandi. Tók hann vel við honum. Bar hann fram erindi sín og orðsendingar Hákonar konungs. Tók Þórður vel ræðum Egils og hét honum liðveislu sinni um það mál. Dvaldist Egill þar lengi um vorið með Þórði.

Tilvísanir

  1. Egill drap Ljót hinn bleika: "This, then, is clearly another instance of an attempt to take a woman by force, … What is more, it occurs in ch. 64, i.e., like the other two cases (Hildrið- and Þóra- related property claims, ch. 23 and 57), in the first pentad of the part in which it is recounted, and is thus parallel to those, not only in content, but also in its position in the structure of the saga. By killing Ljótr, Egill not only defends his friend Arinbjörn's kinsmen, he also prevents a recurrence of the disrupted property claims which might well have resulted from it." Fichtner, Edward G.. The Narrative Structure of Egils saga (s. 364).
  2. Er ekki sagt frá: „Stories happen in their realistic time and also when there is nothing "worthy of mention" is happening, when human activity remains stagnant. In some of the chapter endings there are such closing sentences, breaks. The author does not intend to propagate the word by introducing these parts, but rather he is emphasizing the reality of inactive but significant periods of wintertime and lengthy travels between places, while putting together pieces of the story with simple declarations and rhythm.“ (Hungarian text: „...formalításnak tetszik a sagaíró időkezelési módja. A történetek lefolynak a maguk reális idejében [...] mi van akkor, amikor nem történik „semmi említésre méltó“, (amikor) megcsappant az emberi aktivítás. ..egy-egy fejezet végén megjelennek ilyen zárómondatok, szünetjelek [...] a szerző nem akarta szaporítani a szót, inkább az idő ürességétől való iszonyában egyszerű kijelentő mondatokkal ölti össze a történet darabjait)". Bernáth, István. Nem mondhatjuk, hogy semmi újság (s. 604).
  3. göfugur bær: " I seg selv er det ikke noe unaturlig i å benytte adjektivet om en gård; men uttrykket er meget sterkt i den forbindelse hvor det står i Egils saga og virker som sagt overraskende. Det dreier seg sant nok om en lendmanns gård; men en ville heller ha ventet det om en jarls eller en konges gård " Bjarni Einarsson. Göfugr bær (s. 82).
  4. þá kvað hann vísu: "In Hinsicht auf die unter Egils Namen überlieferten Strophen müssen wir also große Vorsicht üben. Die Strophen der Ljótr-Episode scheiden ganz aus; auch die, welche zu dem Besuche bei Ármóðr [...] gehören, werden ziemlich allgemein als unecht betrachtet. Dasselbe gilt übrigens von fast allen Stegreifstrophen im späteren Teil der Saga." Vries, Jan de. Altnordische Literaturgeschichte (s. 138).
  5. Síðan bjóst Egill til hólmgöngu við Ljót: “Men om denne Egils holmgang med berserken Ljot har fått denne eventyrlege utstasinga, er det ingen grunn til å gjera berserken Ljot til ein rein eventyrskapnad. […] Det er såleis etter mitt skjøn grunn til å rekne med at Egil verkeleg har hatt holmgnag med ein berserk, som han felte og dermed skulle arve.” Hovstad, Johan. Tradisjon og diktning i Egils saga (s. 92).
  6. Stýfum Ljót af lífi: "The psychosis of the berserkr is present in Egil [...] along with the ability of composing poetry. Like the berserkr, the poet goes out of himself, and he is so fully immersed in the composition of his verses that he allows to believe he is ill, while humbling himself in silence and concentration [cf. Odin’s furor]". Meli, Marcello. Preface to La saga di Egill (s. xv).
  7. lóns til launa: "Þegar Egill segir, eftir víg Ljóts, í vísunni til Friðgeirs, að hann ætlist ekki til launa fyrir verkið ... þá er hann bersýnilega að þagga niður græðgina í eignir Ljóts, og telur sig trú um, að hann hafi barizt við hann af óeigingjörnum hvötum." Guðmundur Finnbogason. Hvers vegna orti Egill Höfuðlausn? (s. 195).
  8. lögbrjótanda í móti: "If Egill was from the first the subject of the poem, the noble rejection of any reward ('séka lóns til launa / logbrjótanda í móti') might well have struck the audience as ironically discordant with his normal disposition in the saga, where he is portrayed as among the most grasping and property-conscious of men" Poole, Russell. Egill’s Duel with Ljótr (s. 181).
  9. aflað sér fjár á hólmgöngum: "The sagas suggest, since they deal predominantly with the lives of prominent families, that it was mainly the aristocracy which engaged in the practice of the duel, just as law in general benefited and upheld the mighty. Nevertheless, the common man, a poor but free man, had apparently right to fight a duel … Egils saga Skallagrimssonar (ch. 65, p. 208) states epressly "at hverjum manni var rétt, at skora á annan til holmgöngu" ' that everyone had the right to challenge another to a duel.' References from Iceland and in particular Norway … show that the intrepid considered the duel an instrument to better their way of life." Ciklamini, Marlene. The Old Icelandic Duel (s. 176).

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